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w66利来MG宝石之轮

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w66利来MG宝石之轮ByWangZhonghong,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo118,sdigitaltelevisionindustryAttheendof2008,Chinasdigitaltelevisionuserstotaledmorethan60million,accountingforabout15%ofthecountrysgoaltobasicallystopbroadcastinganaloguetelevisionby2015,thedigitaltelevisionindustrystillhastocoverabout85%,universalserialbuses,vehicleterminalsandspecialserviceequipmentwi,dataservices,s395milliontelevisionuserspays10yuanforvalue-addedservicesorpaycontents,measuretorejuvenateinformationtechnologyindustryandboosteconomicgrowthDigitaltelevisioninvolvesintegratedcircuits,consumerelectronics,ITequipment,broadcastingequipment,technicalservices,multimediacontents,astelevisionintothedigitalagebutalsopushforwardthedevelopmentofthewho,t%over2007,%growth,thesalesoftheele,%anselectronicinformationindustrynowfacesagravesituationduetotheimpactoftheinternationalfinancialcrisis,thedevelopmentofthedigitaltelevisionindustryundoubtedlycanplayimportantrolesinspurringthedomesticdemand,rejuvpeoplesbenefitsandstatesecurityandstabilityTelevisionisamassmediathathasthemostfrequentandclosestcontactswiththepeople,%contentsandservicesandenhancethelevelofthepeople,,itisthemostr,thegovernmentsinallcountriesexercisedirectadministrationovertheterrestrialdigitaltelevisionstandardsandtheirenforcement,tructurewillassumegrowingstrategicimportanceinChinaseconomicandsocialdevelopment,inimprovingthepeoplesionindustryintheneartermCurrently,Chinahassolidtechnical,organizationalandindustrialbasesfordevelopingdigitaltelevisionandisstrivingforarapiddevelopment.(1),whichbegantoenforcein2007thecompletelyproprietarydigitalterrestrialtelevisionstandard(DTMB).Sofar,thestandardhasbeenadoptedby10provinces,27citie,thestandardhasbeenproventobemoreadvancedthantheEuropeanandJapanesestandardsinthestandardcomparisonsandtestsinCuba,Venezuela,(CMMB)targetedon,theStateAdministrationofRadio,TelevisionandFilmhasalsoindependentlydevelopedthedirect-to-homesatellitetransmissiontechnologyABS-Stargetedontheremotemountainousareasandthevastruralareas,andhassucces,ChinaalsohasadvancedtechnologiesthathavewoninternationalrecognitionandwhoseproductsarebeingsoldtocountriesinEuropeandAmerica.(2),ChinantegratedCircuit,ShanghaiHighDefinition,BeijingLingxun,andBeijingTaiheZhiheng,thetelevisionsetmanufacturingenterprisessuchasChanghong,HaierandTCL,thebroadcastequipmentmanufacturingenterprisessuchasBeiguangTechnologiesandTongfangJiezhao,theset-topboxmanufacturingenterprises,themajortelevisionstations,,namelyTCL,Skyworth,Kongka,Changhong,HisenseandHaier,nowaccountforabout20%,Chinasuccessfullyconducteddigitaltelevisiontrialbroadcasting,layingafinefoundationformasscommercialapplication.(3),Chinasetupaleadinggroupfordigitaltelevisionresearch,,comprisingtheStateDevelopmentandReformCommission,theMinistryofScienceandTechnology,theMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnology,theStateAdministrationofRadio,TelevisionandFilm,theStateQualityandQuarantineAdministrationandmanyothergovernmentdepartments,hasplayedkeyrolesinsetting,popularizingandindustrializingChina,atotalof150RDinstitutionsandenterprises,includingTsinghuaUniversityandHaierGroup,,chips,terminalproducts,programs,launchingandreceivingdisplayservicesandmanykeyproprietarytechnologies,theunionhasbecomeanintermediaryorganizationinthetechnologicalinnovation,standardpopularizationandindustrialdevelopmentofChina(1)andinvolvesdiversegovernmentfunctionssuchasequipmentregulation,contentregulation,operationregulationanduserguidanceanddiversegovernmentdepartmentssuchastheStateDevelopmentandReformCommission,theMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnology,theStateAdministrationofRadio,,,nos,regulations,organizationalstandardsandindustrialpoliciestoeffectivelyboostthedevelopmentofthedigitaltelevisionindustry.(2)TheProcessofformulating,ascapacityforindependentinnovationindigitaltelevisionsoastofreeChinafromthemonopolyofforeigntechnologies,bringChinastechnologicalstandardstothesupportingstandardshavebeenrelativelyslow,,forexample,theChinesestandardshavebeenproven,nearlyhalfofthesupportingstandardsfordigitaltelevisionhavenotbeenformulatedandaccordinglytheproducershavenoalternativebuttowaitforthepromulgationofthesestandards,eventhoughtheyalreadyhaveproductioncapacities.(3)on,itisstillweakintheproductionofstudioequipment,high-definitionprogramproduction,metersandinstruments,,itsproductiontechnologyforliquidcrystalflatabledigitaltelevisioncontents,theindustryisstillnotedforinsufficientcompetition,regionalisolation,smallindustrialscale,lowscaleeconomy,insufficientimpetustooperatorsinimprovingservices,weakprofitability,,mutualnetworkingisstillimpossiblebetweendifferentprovi,500cablenetworkcompaniesnationwide,ByFengJieXuanXiaoweiResearchReportNo139,2006Thedegreeofregionalindustrialdivisionandindustrialcooperationcanreflectboththeresourceandindustrialadvantage’smanufacturingandfundamentalindustriesandthechangesinthisdistributioninrecentyearsandsummarizessomeofthenewprogress,’sManufacturingIndustriesHavePostedaRisingSpatialConcentrationIndexandtheManufacturingSectorasaWholeIsHighlyConcentratedThechangesinthespatialconcentrationindexofthemanufacturingindustriesareanimportantmanifestationofthetrendofindust’s20manufacturingindustriesin2003(alsocalledtheindustrialspatialGinicoefficient,whichmeasuresthedistributionofproductivity,namely,totaloutputvalues,ofvariousindustriesin31provincesandregions),,thehighlyconcentra(),chemicalfibers(),instrumentsandofficemachinery(),textiles(),electricmachineryandequipment()andmetalproducts().Therewe()andpharmacy().Intermsoftheprocessofchanges,Chart1indicatesthatmostmanufacturingindustr,,theindustrieswhosespatialconcentrationindexwasover10percenthigherwerepapermakingandpaperproducts()andchemicalfibers().Theindustrieswhosespatialconcentrationindexwasover5percenthigherwerechemicalrawmaterialandchemicalproducts(),foodprocessing(),electronicandcommunicationsequipment()andmetalproducts().Inthemeantime,therewpment(-)andtobaccoprocessing(-).Inaddition,foodproduction(-)andpetroleumprocessingandcokeproduction(-),theaboveinformationindicatesthatthedegreeofspecializeddivisionoflaborbasedonmarketcompetitionandonscaleofeconomywasconstantlyrising,butsomeindustries(suchastheauto,pharmacy,tobaccoandliquorindustries)werestillnotedforscattereddistributionofproductivityduetoth’sManufacturingIndustriesoverPastFiveYears

ByZhangJunkuoResearchReportNo109,2006Thecoordinationofinterestrelationsamongv,,tobuildasocialistharmonioussociety,itisvitaltoidentifythefieldswheretheinterestrelationsinChina’ssocialdevelopmentisnotharmoniousandstudythecauseofthedisharmonyinordertogry’scurrentsituation,thefollowingfiveinterestrelations---relationsbetweenlaborandcapital;betweenurbanandruralareas;betweendifferentregions,betweendifferentindustriesandbetweendmetsociety,,whichmakesthecountryfaces’slegalsystemisnotcompleteonlaborers’organizationandprotectionoflaborers’legalrights,thelaborersarenaturallyinadisad,thecasesofinfringementuponlaborers’ing,buildingandminingindustries,,nearly60%henon-agriculturalindustriesthroughthevigorousdevelopmentofnon-farmingindustriessoastoraisetheproductivity,,weshouldconsiderthat,inthecourseofatransitionfromadualeconomy,howweshouldproperlysolvetheproblemrelatedtoincomeincreaseanddevelopmentofthepopulationwhowillcontinuetostayinthecountrysideanddofarminginafairlylongperiodoftimesothattheywouldalsofullyenjoytheresultofthecountry’sdevelopment,insteadof,Chinahasmadesubstantialprogressinruralandurbandevelopment,andthepeople’,thegapbetweentheincomesandlivingstandardsofurbanandruralresidentshavenotbeennarrowed,,in1978,theratioofurbanandruralresident’:,:,healthcare,education,transportandpublicservicesenjoyedbyurbanresidentsareincluded,thegapwouldreach5:1or6:citiesduetovaryingproductivityrates,elfareofurbanandruralresidentshasnotbeendeterminedbyproductivityrates,,,alculatetheincomeandlivingstandardgapbetweendifferentregionsandtheresultsvary,,thewesternregion,thenortheasternregionandthecentralregion,butalsobetweenthedevelopedregionsandregionswiththesamevaryingproblems,suchasresource-exhaustedareas,theoldrevolutionarybaseareas,areasinhabitedbyethnicminorities,meinvariousregionsduetoavastterritory,icyandsystemfactors,whichislike,theeasterncoastalregiondevelopedfirstwiththesupportfromthestate’,includingthecentralandwesternregions,wherethenaturalconditionsarenotasgoodasthatintheeast,thedevelopmenthrejuvenationstrategy,thesixprovincesinthecentralregionhavebecomeafewaretanousregions,,reformandpolicymeasuresmustbea,thegapcausedbythepolicydifferencesindevelo,theprincipleofpublicservicequalityshouldbeadheredtosothatalltheresidentswouldenjoythefairlysamelevelofwelfare.

Graph2IncreaseoftheTotalRetailValueofSocialConsumerGoodsfromMay2005toJune2006Source:sortedoutaccordingtoChinaEconomicBoomMonthlyWhatisworthnoticinginCPIchangeinthefirsthalfoftheyearisthattheconductivityofthe,duetotheinfluenceoftheincreaseinworldoilprices,thestatetwiceraisedpricesofoilproducts,esourceprices,andtheriseofresourcepricesinevitablybroughtabouttheoverallrisingoftheserviceprices,thusleadingtotheincreaseofCPIdirectlyorindirectly.(5)Housingpricesremainedhigh,andpricesinsomecitiesgrewexcessivelyhighInthefirsthalfof2006,%overthesameperiodoflastyear,;inthesecondquarter,increaseofthesalespricesofthenewly-builtcommercialhousingbegantobounceback,,salespricesofthesecond-handhousesthroughoutthecountryrosesteadily,%inJune,showingafallaftertherise,whichsuggestedth%inthesecondquarterascomparedwiththesameperiodoflastyear,,,pricesofthenewly-builtresidencesin23citieshadsurpassedthecountrysaverageinJune,of%%respectivelyoverthesameperiodoflastyear,,%;(6)MonetarycreditshowedamomentumofexcessivelyrapidgrowthThefirsthalfoftheyearsawafinancialsituationof"easymoney,easycredit".BytheendofJune,thebroadmoney(M2)%overthesameperiodlastyear,,(M1)%,;cashincirculation(M0)%,,thenewly-increasedRMBloansamountedto2170billionyuan,,%oftheexpectedcontrollingtargetof2500billionyuanforthewholeyearof2006(seeGraph3).Undersuchcircumstances,themobilityofthebankingsystemwasmadetobeexcessivelyloose,thusfurtherleadingtotherapidgrowthofthefixedassetinvestment.ByChenDaofu,,nterprisesChinasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshave,formanyyears,,thePeoplesBankofChinahadservedastheonlyfinancialorganinthesociety,,itwasthe,althoughbanksofvariouskindsandothernon-bankingfinancialinstitutionshaveincreasedtheirmarketsharesgradually,thefourmajorstate-,inthefinalanalysis,,thereformofthestate-ownedbankswillinevitablybecloselylinkedwiththereformofChinasfinancialsystemandwiththedispositionofitsfinancialresources,ratherthanasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionsisbyitselfaimedatachievingsomemacroscopictarge,imperfectionofthemicro-reformofthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshasalsotriggeredoffmacroscopicissues,forexample,thereversedtransmissionofthepressureforeasingmonetaryconditionhasresultedininflation,,thestate-ownedfinancialenterpriseshadplayedafargreaterroleinthehistoryofChinaseconomicdevelopmentthanactingmerelyasfinancialenterprisesandhadeverplayedauniqueroleinpromotingChina,Chinasfinancialenterprisesareimbuedwithfiscalfunctionstoacertainextent,whichhasbeenevidentlyreflectedbythecausesoftheformati,therewerethreemainstagesfortheformationofChinasnon-performingloans:from1980stoearly1990s,thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansgrantedtooldtraditionalindustrialenterprisesandloansforblindrepeatconstructions,accountedforabout1/3;thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansreleasedduringtheeconomicoverheatingperiodinearly1990smadeup1/3orso;andthenon-performingloansresultedfromthebankruptcy,mergerandrestructuringofenterprisescarriedoutbythestateinmid-andlate1990sconstitutedapproximately1/,theChineseeconomyhadbeenaquantityexpansionpatternunderthedominanceofthegovernment,andthewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankswerestatespecializedbanks,,thoughsuchasituationchangedabit,,thewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankspaidcostforthetransformationofthewholesystem,suchasthemergerandbankruptcyofenterprises,therestructuringoftheenterprisesintextile,coal,defense,foreigntrade,supplyandmarketingindustries,~2000alone,sFinancialInstitutionsReformBeforethereformandopeningupwascarriedoutin1978,Chinapracticedan"all-in-one"sBankofChinaandtheruralcreditcooperativesunderitsleadershipweretheonlyfinancialinstitutions,andthemanpower,financialandmaterialresourcesofvariousbranchesofthePeoplesBankwereunderthec,andthepracticeof"unifieddepositsandunifiedloans"wascarriedout,namely,theabsorbeddepositswerehandedovertotheHeadOfficeforunifiedallocationandloa(theminimumfundquotasneeded)ofenterpriseswerefromfinancialappropriations,andpartofthecircul,includingfinancialfunds,rminedbythestateinaplannedway,andcurrencyservedonlyasanaccounti,~1993:Financialreforminthereformofeconomicincrement----constructionofabasicfinancialsystembasedoneconomicneedsSuchafinancialreformduringthisperiodwasmeanttoprovidenewresourcesforthereformwhiletallyingwiththenewstrategyforthereform.(1)WideningthebusinessscopeofthebanksOntheonehand,bankswerenotonlyabletograntacertainamountofcirculatingfundloans,butcouldpro,shortagesofthecirculatingfunds,appropriationsforChinasbudgeintheunitsownedbythewholepeopleaccountedforabout2/3before1979andonlyfor1/,besidesthestate-runenterprises,loanscouldalsogotoprivately-operatedenterprisesandtotheself-employedaswell.(2)Eancebusiness(before1984).In1979,AgriculturalBankofChinawasre-designatedasthespecializedbankinchargeofthefinancialbusinessinruralareas,BankofChinawasseparatedfromthePeoplesBankofChinaandbecameanindependentspecializedforeignexchangebank,andChinaConstructionBankwasreorga,IndustrialandCommercialBankofChinawasestablishedtoundertakeindustrialandcommercialcreditandurbansavingsbusinesspreviouslyhandledbythePeople,People,institutionalmanagementwaschangedtocorporatemanagement,thereformofcombiningresponsibilities,rightsandinterestswascarriedoutinanall-roundwayandthepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"inincomedistributionwasbrokendown,,thepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"infunddistributionwascastaway,fundconstraintfrombankswasgraduallystrengthenedandtheinter-bankbusinesslimitswereruledout....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,sPresidentZhouXiaochuan:ReformofChinasBankingIndustryScalesNewHeights.博士体育app网站ByWuJinglianResearchReportNo195,seconomicgrowthsincethefoundingofthePeoplesRepublichasbeenfollowingthepat,thecontemporaryeconomicdeenturytotheearlystageofgrowt,thh,whichlast,thedevelopedcountriesenteredaperiodofeconomicgrowthcharacter,thedevelopmenteconomicsformednewtheorieaseriesofnegativeeconomicandsocialconsequences,suchastheworseninglivingconditionsoftheworkingclassandtheseriouspollutions,whichwerecalledtheevilsoftheso-called"ManchesterCapitalism".theratioofcapitaltolaborandtheratioofinvariablecapitaltovariablecapital,namelytheorganiccompositionofcapital,theratioofvariablecapital(capitalusedforwagepayment)tivelysurpluspopulation(namelytheunemployedpopulation).Inotherwords,theincomeoftheworkersortheproportionoftheirconsumptionfundsinthenationalincomewouldbecomeincreasinglysmaller,whichinturncausedth,sanalysisofthemodeofeconomicgrowthintheearlyye,whiletheearlyindustrializedcountrieshadallturnedtothemodernmodeofefficiency-drivengrowthinthelate19thcentury,thesocialistcountriesledbytheSovieinthe1920scharacterizedbyaconsciousintroductionoftheearlycapitalismmodeofgrowth,namelythe"lineofsocialistindustrializationgivingprioritytothedevelopmentofheavyindustry".This"lineofsocialistindustrialization"putfo,itwasoutofpracticalneed,theneedthattheSovietUnionsurrsethelegitimacyoftheirlineandsuppresstheinner-partyopponentsinthepartysstrugglesthattheycitedtheexpositionsontheearlygrowthofcapitalismmadebyVlnsectorproducingmeansofproduction,fastinthemeansofproductionsectorproducingconsumergoods,ateinvestmentmadetoensuretheprioritygrowthoftheheavyindustrywasaconsciousapplicationofthe"basicprinciplesofMarxstheoryofreproduction".Stalins"lineofsocialistindustrialization"wasconfirmedbytheSovietCommunistPartyastheonlycorrectlineinthecountrys"campaignagainstrightopportunism",Feldman,aneconomistoftheSovietPlanningCommission,wasauthorizedto,knownastheFeldmanmodel,,includingChina,ismodeofgrowthasfromthelate1950sandtooksomemeasuresinthecourseofreformandopeninguptoalleviateandeliminateitsconsequences,achangeinthemodeofgrowthhasneverbecomofindustrialization,somecountriesandregionsinEas,thesecountriesandregi,,toagreatextent,becausemanycountriesandregionsinEastAsiaadoptedanexport-orientedpolicyandreplacedtheshrinkingdomesticdemandwiththeexportdemandsoastoeasethesl,theexport-orientedpolicyfeaturingtheappropriategovernmentprotectionofnationalenterprisesandthedevaluationofnationalcurrencieswasoftenregardedasoneoftheimportantmagicweaponsforcreatingthe"EastAsianmiracle"eformin1994,Chinaalsosuccessfullyusedthisapproachtoseekavigorousexportgrowthandtosupportasustainedrapideconomicgrowthwiththerobustexportdemand.

w66利来MG宝石之轮信誉:贫民窟已有确诊病例

918博天直营网appw66利来MG宝石之轮XieFuzhan,LiuShijin,LuZhongyuan,ZhangLiqunLiJianweiByJinSanlinResearchReportNo009,2006In2006,ce,,TendingtoSlowDownFromJanuarytoFebruarythisyear,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,,,thegrowthrateoftheunrecoveredbalanceofcapitalbyfinishedindustrialproductshasbeenonthedecline,andthistrendcontinuedintheperiodfromJanuarytoFebruarythisyear,indicatingrchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRC,theperformanceofupstreamindustriesandthemiddleinvestmentproductscontinuedtodropintheperiodfromJanuarytoFebruary,andthegrowthrateof,factorsthatleadtotheslowing-downofeconomicperformancemainlyinclude:First,theproblemofsurpluscapacityinsomeindustriesstillexists,andinparticular,surpluscapacityinsuchindustriesasironandsteel,cement,,,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,;%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,’sexportgrowththisyearinclude:theworldeconomicgrowthmayslowdown,andthegrowthrateofimportofChina’smajortradingpartnerstendtodrop;tradefrictionsmayworsen;theRenminbiexchangeratemayrisebyasmallmargin;andChina’’sgrowthrateofexportwilldropslightly,andtheweakeneddrivi,thesupply-demandrelationshiptendstochangetothesituationwherethesupplyoutpacesthedemand,,thePPI(producerpriceindex)rose3%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,thepurchasingpriceofrawmaterials,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,;(consumerpriceindex)%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,,roduceacertainshrinkingeffecttotheenterprises’st,consumptiondemandscontinuetorise,,alongwiththefasteconomicdevelopment,theincomelevelsofurbanandruralresidentsalsorosefast,,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,andafterdeductingthepricefactor,%,continuingthetrendofanactualgrowthof12%registeredinthepreviousyear,,inthesaleamountofwholesaleandretailindustryabovethedesignatedquota,%,%%.Drivenbythedemandofresidentsforhouses,autosandelectronicinformationproducts,thebaseforasustainablegrowthofauto,realestate,electronicinformationindustriesissolidandfavorable,ofwhich,thedevelopmentoftheautoindustry,aftereliminatingitsinventoryandadjustingtheproductmix,,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,,,withmacrocontrolandadjustmentmeasureslastyear,irrationaldemandscausedbyspeculativeactivitiesarebeingbroughtundercontrol,,thepriceofcommodityhousescontinuedtorise,,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,%,,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,althoughthegrowthratedroppedslightlycomparedwiththatofthepreviousyear,,drivenbyconsumption,thedevelopmentofendindustriesaccelerated,therewa,localgovernmentsareallhighlyenthusiasticaboutspeedingupthedevelopmentrelatedtotheirrespectiveplans,thedemandsinallsectorscouldbetranslatedintoahugedemandforinvestment,andtherefore,,alongwiththechangeofenterprises’internalmechanismandthefiercemarketcompetition,investmentbye,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,higherthantheoverallgrowthrateofinvestment,ofwhich,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,an%,,thetotalengineeringandconstructionprojectsofurbanfixedassetinvestmentamountedto48,589,anincreaseof9,913overthesameperiodoflastyear;,%comparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear;thenumberofnewlystartedprojectswas11,723,anincreaseof4,140overthesameperiodoflastyear;,%,althoughthegrowthofloanswasnothigh,moneysupplywasrelativelysufficient,,ofthegrowthrateofbankloans,short-termloanshaveregisteredthebiggestdrop,butmiddleandlong-termloanshaveallregisteredafastgrowth,indicatingthatfinancialin,thegrowthrateoffixedassetinvestmenttendstoaccelerate.’sGDPGrowthRateandTheirConvergenceandDivergenceAnalysisInthelightofthedivergenceofactualGDPgrowthrateandpotentialgrowthrate,China’seconomicgrowthhaswitnessedshort-term,medium-andlong-termandlong-termendogenousfluctuationswithanaveragerangeof6,,governmentpoliciesandworldeconomicsituationshavedealtmajorexternalshocks,whichthenchangethedirectionofeconomicfluctuationandevenchangethedirectionoftheshort-te,theexternalshconvergenceanddivergenceanalysisWeusethedivergenceoftheactualGDPgrowthratearacteristics:(1)Thepolicyfactorsandaccidentalshocks,theseweretheperiodswhengreatfluctuationsoccurredtoGDPgrowthratesandwhenmajorpolicyadjustmentsweremadeorthecountrywashitbyseriousaccidentalshocks,suchasthe"GreatLeapForward"andthree-yearmajornaturaldisastersfrom1958to1964,andtheAsianfinancialcrisisin1997.(2)ariousperiods,theshortestbeingtwoyearsandthelongestbeingtwelveyears.(3)Thefluctuatt-termpotentialgrowthrates.

,2008Ruralinfrastructureandpublicservicesystemconstitu,improvingruralinfrastructureandpublicservice,thegovernmenthasincreasedinp,theoutdatedruralinfrastructurehasnotwitnessedanymajorimproveme,thisurban-ruralgapcanbeattributed,toaverylargeextent,,inwhich"agricultureispromotedbyindustryandcountrysideissupportedbycity",ChinahasalreadypossessedthebasicconditionsandcapacitiestoshifttheemphasisofthecoyofpublicproductsinChinasruralareashaslongobservedthebasicprincipleof"self-reliancefirstandgovernmentsupportsecond".Thesupplyofruralpublicproductshasbeenmainlyrelyingonthepeasantsthemselves,,medicalcare,socialsecurity,publicinfrastructureandotherpublicservices,,itfatilthe16thPartyCongresswstructionofanewsocialistcountrysideasamajorhistorictaskanddecided,forthefirsttimeinhistory,"threereductions"(reductionofagriculturaltax,reductionoftaxonspecialagriculturalproductsandreductionofchargesforruraleducation)and"threesubsidies"(subsidiesforgrainproduction,seedsimprovementandthepurchaseofagriculturalmachines),aseri,thesupportofpublicfinancetoruraldevelopmentshiftedfromthepastnarrowscopeofagriculturalproducti,ruraleducation,health,culture,roadconstruction,drinkingwaterforhumansandanimals,anduralinfrastructureandsocialundertakingssincethe16thPartyCongress,ruralinfrastructureconstructi,,th,atotalof870,000kilometersofruralroadswereeitherconstructedorreconstructed,with580,,325,000kilometersofruralroadswereconstructedorreconstructed,458townshipsortownsand17,764administrativevillageswereconnectedwithhighways,and1,708townshipsortownsand43,,thetotalmileageofChina,%%oftheadministrativevillageshadbeenconnectedwithhighways,%%of,Chinas,,,,theconstructionofruralwatercontrolfacilities,featuringthewater-savingtransformationprojectsinthelargeirrigatedareas,thewater-savingirrigationdemonstrationprojectsandthewatercontrolexperimentsinthepastoralareas,,,,eachbeing300,000mu,,,,theareaundersprayirrigation,,andtheareaunderrain-collec%ofthetotallengthofvariouschannelsintheirrigationareas,eachbeingmorethan10,edCurrently,97%ofChinastownshipsandtownscanbeconnectedwiththeInternetand92%,thereareover6,"three-in-one"integratedinformationserviceplatformsthatincorporatetheadvantagesoftelephone,(county,townshipandvillage)informat%oftheadministrativevillagesacrossthecountry,,telephoneservicecovered13,740newadministrativevillages,,atotalof6700centralandgrass-rootsservicestationswereestablishedbyrelyingonthepubliclibrariesatvariouslevelsandtheculturalstationsatthetownship,ndthemoderndistanceeducationprojectforruralprimaryandmiddleschoolshaverespectivelybuilt197,000and181,,anationwidesductionandlife,andhaspreliminarilysolvedtheirdifficultiesinreadingbooksandwatchingmovies,andhasenrichedtheirspare-timeculturallife.——Basedonaquestionnaireon230pharmaceuticalenterprisesByWeiJigang,,sPharmaceuticalIndustryCommonlyacknowledgedintheworldasahi-techindustrywithgreatdevelopmentprospects,thepharmaceuticalindustryischaracteristicoffastgrowth,enormousinvestment,substantivereturns,highrisks,highdegreeofinternationalization,markedeffectsofscaleeconomy,significantspillovereffects,sRepublicofChinain1949,andespeciallyovertherecent20-oddyearsafterthecountryinitiatedthepolicyofreformandopening-up,China,Chinahasbecomeamajorproducerandexporterofrawmedicinesandtheb,Chinaindependentlydevelopedsomeinnovativedrugs1withinternationalinfluences,spharmaceuticalindustryasawhole,however,hasnotmovedtoanot,ithascontributedfewpatentmedicineswithproprietaryintellectualpropertyright(IPR)andnoinnovativedrugwithinternationalinfluencesinthe,amongthe212brandsofchemicalmedicineswithproprietaryIPRwhichpassedexaminationandapprovalbetween2003and2005,,s230pharmaceuticalenterprisesjointlyconductedbytheResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,theEconomicConstructionDepartmentoftheMinistryofFinance,andtheDepartmentofIndustryandTransportStatisticsoftheNationalBureauofStatisticsofChinain2006hasalsorevealedthatonly3percentoftheseenterprisescountedthemselvesashavingcarriedoutorarecarryingoutdevelopmentofmedicinesthatwere‘new,competitioninthepharmaceuticalindustryhasbecomeincreasinglyintenseanddevelopmentofnewmedicineshasbecomeoneofthefocumentofnewmedicinesforthepurittletoxiceffects,minimalsideeffectsandreasonableprice,itwillbeverydifficultforChinaspharmaceuticalindustrytoachiev,theshareoflocalproduce,overhalfoftheChinesepharmaceuticalmarkethasbeentakarmaceuticalindustryfromthestrategicperspectiveofmaintaovationin230pharmaceuticalenterprisesinthecountry,andbytakingintoaccountthemechanismsandsystemscurrentlyservingtheindustrysdevelopment,thispapertriestoanalyzethemainfactorsleadingtotheextremelyinsufficienteffortsoninnovationinChinasph:extremeshortagesoffund,technologyandmanpower,andinappropriateorganizationInordertoinventnewmedicines,apharmaceuticalenterprisehastoputinandrationallyintegratemanykeyelementsincludingfund,technology,manpower,oftheinnovationprocess.(1)spharmaceuticalindustryisnotonlywellbelowthatofdevelopedcountries,,theintensityhasbeendecreasingcontinuouslyinrecentyears,,2006,theRDexpenditureofBritain,andthecorrespondingfiguresinFrance,Japan,,,theRDintensityofthepharmaceutica,market,,therewasnotasinglepharmaceuticalenterpriseintheworld,however,,ChinaspharmaceuticalindustrysufferedacontinuousdeclineinRDintensity,sPharmaceuticalIndustry

w66利来MG宝石之轮平台:卡车撞飞机机翼

ByFengFeiLiangYangchun,,-YearPlanPeriodSincetheStateCouncilpromulgatedthereformplanofelectricpowersystemin2002,theelectricpowersystemreforminChinahasmademuchprogress,whichcanbedescribedasthefollowing:therapidgrowthinthepowersupplyandgridconstructionhaseffectivelyrelievedthepowershortage;theseparationofthepowerplantandpowergridhashelpedcreateamarketpatternfavorableforintroducingafaircompetitiontotheelectricitygenerationside;theestablishmentoftheindependentregulatorfortheelectricityindustryindicatesabasicsteptowardamodernregulatorysystem;thepilotworkabouttheelectricitymarkethasbeendoneinsomeareastotesttheapplicabilityofdifferentmarketsysteminChina(evenindifferentareas);theissuanceoftheelectricitypricereformplan,theproblemsarisinginthereformareequallyprominent,whichmainlyinclude:First,thetransformationofgovernmentfunctionlagsbehind,themanagementsystemisnotyetrationalized,and,governmentfunctionhasnotbeenfulfilled,authorityabsenceandoversteppingcoexist,theproblemof"multi-levelmanagement"isstillobvious,thediscretionarypoweroftheadministrationorganizationistoostrong,andanopen,,,tosolvetheproblemofpowershortageinChinaassoonaspossible,thestateover-emphasizedpowersupply,"prioritizingenergyconservation",theimmediowergri,,suchaslackinginvestmentincentives,asthestabilityofthestaffwillbegrea,nosubstantialprogresshaseverbeenattainedinthereformofkeysectors,rombeingrealized,a,thelegislationfortheelectricit,interestedpartiesmaydistortoriginaldirectionofthereform,,theleadingteamwhichwassetupattheearlystageofthereformcannotplayitsduerole,whichhaoductionofcompetitionmechanismintotheelectricityindustrydemandstheclarificationofthreefundamentalquestions:first,howtomatchthecompetitionmechanismwithtechnologicalandeconomiccharacteristicsoftheindustry;second,howtodealwiththerelationsbetweencompetitionanddevelopment;third,howtodealw,ithasbeendebatedforlongthatthecompetitionmechanismmusttakely,,roughlybreakingmonopolyandintroducingcompetitionintothewholetransmissionanddi:first,whetherthecompetitionoptimizesresourcesdistribution;second,whethertheregulatorcankeepaneffectivecontroloverthegridcompanies;third,,basedoncurrentadministrativesystemandmarketcondition,forcingtheseparationofthepowerplantandthegridwillonlyreplace"bigmonopolies"with"smallmonopolies".Whatisworse,thegridsectorlosesnotonlyeconomyofscope(verticalmonopolyisnotallowed),,thegridcannotberash,,overemphasisonunrearlieristhelackofinvestmentincent,theStateofCaliforniaoftheUnitedStatesalteredthemarketpatternoftotal-quantityreal-timebiddingandtheBritaingover,theyseektostrikeabalancebetweenmarketcompetiti,thereformgoalmustbedifferentiatedfromthatofthesecountries,whichmeanswemustpromotecompetitionanddevelopmentasdualgoalsofthereform,enhanceefficiencythroughcompetitionandthencreateaneffectiveincentivemechanism,twocrucialproblemsmustbeaddressed:first,whichmarketpatternshouldweadopt,total-quantitybiddingorpartial-quantitybiddingSecond,whichapproachshouldbeadoptedintheregulationofelectricitypricestoensurethatthepowergridcompaniesarewillingandhavethecapacitytomakeinvestmentinthelongrunThird,itisnecesssuewhenthemonopolizedgridisconcerned,,revolutionarychangesshouldtakeplaceinthescopeofregulation(alsocalledaregulationrevolution),fromtraditionaleconomicregulationtosocialregulation,whichmayincludeenvironment,security,quality,marketstructure(incaseofthemisuseofmarketpower)andresourcesefficiencies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

永盈会中文版ZhangChenghui,ChenDaofu,(1)OpeningpolicyonmarketaccesstoforeigninstitutionsWhenjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO),Chinamadecommitmentsinfiveareasincludingformofincorporation,geographicscope,businessscope,nstitutionsinChinaintheformofjoint-venturecompaniesbutwouldnotbeallowedtohavemorethan50%equityholding;foreignnon-lifeinsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishbranches,joint-venturecompaniesandwholly-ownedsubsidiarycompanies.—Thegeographicrestriction,whichhadlimitedforeigninsurancecompaniestoShanghai,Guangzhou,Dalian,ShenzhenandFushanbeforeChinasWTOaccession,,foreigninsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishsubsidiariesinanypartofChina.—Withregardtobusinessscope,foreignlifeinsurancecompanies,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatinglifeinsurancebusinessforforeignersandforChinesewhopersonallypaidpremiums,wouldbeallowedtoprovidepersonallifeinsuranceservice,healthinsurance,groupinsuranceandpension/,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatingpropertyinsurancebusinessforoverseasenterprisesandoperatingpropertyinsuranceandrelatedliabilityinsurance,creditinsurance,masterpolicyandmajorcommercialinsuranceforforeign-investedenterprisesinChina,wouldbeallowedtooperateallinsurancebusinessesexceptmandatoryinsurancelines(third-partyliabilityinsuranceformotorvehiclesandliabilityinsuranceforthedriversandcarriersofcommercialtransportvehicles).—Foreignreinsurancecompanieswouldbesubjecttoneithertherestrictionontheformofincorporationnortherestrictionongeographiclocationandtherestrictiononthenumberofbusinesslicenses.—Withregardtotheconditionsofincorporation,foreigninsuranceinstitu$200millionintotalassets,higherthanthe10-million-yuanpaid-upcapitalrequiredforaChinesecompany.—Withregardtothequalificationofforeignshareholders,theywouldhavetomeettherequirementsoftotalassetsandbusinesshistory(ashareholdermusthaveoperatedinsurancebusinessformorethan30years,itstotalassetsattheendoftheyearbeforeincorporationapplicationshouldnotbelessthanUS$5billion,andtheapplicanthashadarepresentativeofficeinChinaformorethantwoyears).TheinsuranceindustryhasthesamerequirementforforeigncapitalparticipationinChineseinsurancecompaniesasthebankingindustrydoes,namelytheinvestmentinaChinesefinancialinstitutionbyasingleoverseasfinancialinstitutionshouldnotexceed20%andthetotalshareholdingbyforeigncapitalshouldnotexceed25%.—The20%mandatorycedingtoaChinesereinsurancecompanyatthetimewhenChinajoinedtheWTOwouldbelifted.(2)OpeningpolicyonthecontrolofoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompaniesWithregardtothecontrolovertheoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompanies,foreigncompaniesarecurre:—,thebasictermsandpremiumratesofmajorcommercialieterms,ndapprovingthetermsandpremiumratesofmandatoryinsurance,guaranteedinsurancewithaperiodofmorethanoneyear,,%orlower.—,treasurybondsandfinancialbonds,thecommissionalsoallowedinsurancefundstoinvestincorporatebonds,securitiesinvestmentfundsanddirectlyinvestinstockmarkets,,itraisedtheratioofinvestinginsuranceassetsinstockmarketsfrom5%to10%ofthetotalassets,allowedinsurancecompaniestouse15%oftheirtotalassetsforoverseasinvestment,andexpandedthescopeofoverseasinvestmentfromthefixed-earningcategorytoshares,,thecommissionestablishedarelativelyhighthresholdforhigh-riskinvestmentandencouragedsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompaniestocarryoutentrustedinvestmentthrought,mostsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanieshavenoqualificationfordirectstockinvestmentexceptnineChinese-investedinsuranceassetsmanagementcompaniesandthespecially-approvedAssetManagementCenterofChinaRegionofAmericanInternationalAssuranceCo.,,aninsurancecompanymusthaveatleast10billionyuanintotalassetsandthereforesmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanies,bothChineseandforeign,aredifficulttoacquirethisqualification.—,ChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionpromulgatedtheInterimRegulationsontheAdministrationoftheMinimumSolvencyandRegulatoryIndicatorsofInsuranceCompanies,thusbeginninganexperimentonsolvencyregulation,whichusedtherelativelysimple,EU-typefixedratiomodel,(1)ForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustryForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustrywasmainlydoneinthreeforms:branchcompanies,Sino-foreignjoint-venturecompaniesandstrategicinvestors,someforeigncapitalenjoyedthedevelopmentfruitofChinasinsuranceindus,atotalof49foreigninsurancecompaniesfrom15countriesandregionsacrosstheworldhadestablishedatotalof161businessinstitutionsinChina(includingthoseunderpreparation).Table1showsthenumbersofChineseandforeigninsurancecompaniesformallyoperatinginChinasinsurancemarketduringthe2004~%ginChinasInsuranceMarketSource:The2006dataoriginatedfromLiFeng:ChinasPolicyFrameworkforRenewableEnergies,ChinaRenewableEnergyAssociation,;the2005dataoriginatedfromtheLongandMedium-TermPlanfortheDevelopmentofRenewableEnergies,,,thegrowth%and94%.Asthegrowthofthecoalpower-generatingcapacityalsorosesharply,theshareofthepower-generatingcapacityofrenewab~2007,Chinastotalpower-generati%%ofthecountry,hydropowergeneratingcapacitywasrespectively128millionKWand145millionKW,%%;%%(powergenerationaccountedforabout2%);%%.Comparedwiththeworldaveragelevel,Chinaspowergenerationwithrenewableenergiesaccountsforafairlyhigherratioofpowersupplybutitsnuclearpowerisfarbelowtheworldaveragelevelof15%.stotalutilizationofrenewableenergiesranksamongthehighestintheworldwhileitsrelativeintensity1remainsattheworldsmedium-highlevelIn2005~2006,Chinasinvestmentinrenewableenergieswasabout6billiondollars,,Chinasutilizationofrenewableenergies(excludingtherenewableenergiesutilizedinthetraditionalway)accountedforabout13%oftheworldtotal,and%,Chinaranksfirstintheworldinutilizingsolarenergywaterheatersandmethanegenerationanditsproductioncapacityofbiomassliquidfuelsexceeds1milliontons,,China,rankingfifthintheworld;Chinasprod~,whichwas16%oftheworldtotalandnextonlytotheEuropeanUnionandJapan(China-BritainSummitonSolarEnergy:SolarBatteriesExpectedtoEnterLow-CostEra,http:///html/Dir/2008/03/06/15/61/)(Table2).Table2InternationalComparisonofChinasDevelopmentofMainRenewableEnergies

w66利来MG宝石之轮ProjectTeamonAnalysisofMacroEconomy*icsituationin2006include:theoverallleveloftheeconomicgrowthincreasedoverlastyear,andtheeconomicperformancessho,,,%,andtheindustrialenterprise,sincethelaterhalfof2006,economicperformanceremainedstableasawhole,withlittleposs:First,thefactorofdemandsupportingthefasteconomicgrowthhasappearedtobestrong,andconsumption,inparticular,tendstobemoreactive,thusbringingmoremotivepowertothedevelopmentofsuchterminalindustriesashousingandtransportationaswellasnumeroussmallandmedium-sizedenterprises;foreigntradesurpluscontinuestoexpand,drivingforththedomesticindustries,,thelowincreaseofpricessuggeststhatthemarketcompetitionhasbecomemorefierce,put,enterpriseshavemuchadaptedthemselvestothec,someindustrieswhichusedtobeconsideredinexcessofproductioncapacityhavescorednewdevelopmentafterstructuraladjustment,,outputofcementrose21%yearonyear,%yearonyear,,fromJanuarythroughAugust,profitsrealizedbythecementindustryrose135%yearonyear;%,t,andaselectionwillbeheldthisyearforlocalgovernmentsandPartycommitteesonexpirationofofficeterms,,thecentralgovernmenthasadoptedaseriesofcontrollingmeasuressincethisyear,focusingonstrengtheningcontroloverthenewlystartedprojectsandinputofmediumandlong-termloans,aswellasoverenergyconsumptionandenvironmentalpollutionandhasenforcedstrictmanagementofincomesfromlandsupply,andtheourqualitativeestimatesofvariouskindsoffactors,%andthepricesofhouseholdconsumergoodswillrisewithin2%.tOverrecentyears,Chinasforeig,China,;inthefirsthalfof2006,%%rowingimbalanceofpaymentsintheworld,whichisunfavorabletothestabilityofforeignexchangeratesandtheforeigntradeandforeigninvestmentenvironment,andhasresultedintheveisoneoftheconspicuousissu:oneistheexpansionofforeigntradesurplusandtheotherisinvestmentfromabroadtoChinaisbiggerthanChina,,itcanbeseenthatthereisstillabigpotentialforChinatobeadvantageousinlaborforceresource,thespaceforthedevelopmentofprocessingtradeisstillbigandexportwillstillmaintainafastgrowth;meanwhile,undertheinfluenceofthekeencompetitionindomesticmarketandthechangeinthestructureofimportedgoods(importofresourceproductsandhi-techproductshasincreased,whileimportofgoodsofordinarytechnologyhasreduced),,,itneedstobepointedoutthatelementsforrestrainingexportfromincreasingandfo:First,demandosmajortradepartners(15countriesofEuroarea,USA,Japan,SouthKoreaandChina’sHongKongSAR)hasacyclicalfluctuatingphenomenonof5years,afterDecemberof2004importdemandofthemajortradepartnershasenteredintoacyclicalshrinkingperiod,%%%%,thecon,inSeptemberof2006,%,%%(Julyof2006).Thecontinuousappre,thepolicyfactorsuchascancellationofexporttaxrefundforh,worldtradeconflictshaveaggravated,,increaseinimportof,in2005,%,%%;increaseinimportofcrudeoilandoilproductshasbeenlow,evenreduced(%--17%),%%respectively,%%.Fromtheperspectiveoftheutilizationofforeigninvestment,itcanbeseenthatChina’seconomyhasgrowncontinuallyandrapidly,pricesoflaborforceandlandarelowandtheinvestmentenvironmenthasbeenimprovedcontinually,whichwillcontinuetoattractforeigninvestmenttoChina;meanwhile,undertheinfluenceofRMBappreciationandthegradualadjustmentandimprovementofthepoliciesforforeigninvestmentutilization,,fromJanuarythroughSeptemberof2006,,%,withinaperiodoftimeinthefuture,foreignexchangereservewillstillcontinuetoincrease,,,short-termpolicymeasuresshouldbeadoptedtostabilizethemacro-economyandmediumandlong-termstrategiesshouldbeworkedouttosolvethecontradictionofimbalanceofpaymentaswell.ByHouYongzhiSunZhiyan,Departm,2008Theoilandgaspriceshavestayedatahighlevelinrecentyears,whichhves,,,whileexperiencingswiftindustrializationandurbanization,,Chinabadlyneedstospeedupthetransformationofthemodeofdevelopmentforitsoilandgasindustrysothatitcanrealizeanunconventional,nasoilandga,therelevantChineseenterprisesareneitherlargeinscaleandnorstrongincompakenedduetothechangeinthecompetitionsituationandhavefoundthemselv,oilandgashavebecomeChinassecondmajorenergy,,,ocialdevelopment,Chinamustcontinuetoexpandthescaleofthisindustryandforcethisindustrytoformnewcuttingedgesandboostitscorecompetitivenesssothattheindustrycancat,mostoftheoilenterprisesarebesetwithahostofseriousproblems:thecontinuousriseinthedegreeofexplorationanddevelopmentoftheoilandgasbasinshasresultedinacontinuousincreaseinthecostofproduction,agrowinglyshortercycleofdevelopmentofoilrefineryandnewoilandchemicalproducts,andarapiddevelopmentofthehigh-tech,,ltinationaloilcompanies,over80%oftheadvancedoilandpetrocindustrybyimportingtechnologiesfromothercountries,,akeystepforChinatoexpandtheindustrialscaleandincreasethecorecompetitivenessistorapidlyenhan,breakthroughsmnhanceitscapacityforintegratingthecoeavyinvestment,highrisk,longcycleofreturnandhighuncertaintyandastheresearchanddevelopmentinthisfieldishighlyexternally-related,abreakthrough,oncemade,canacceleratethetechnologicalupgradingofoneorseveralindustri,theenterprisesarenotsoenthusiasticabouttheresearchanddevelopmentinthagesandoccupyimportantpositionsthatcann,ChinashouldrelyonPetroChina,Sinopec,CNOOCandotherlargestate-o,ChinashouldrationallyarrangetheownershipofgeneraltechnologiesandgenerictechnologiesandpromotetechnologysharingamongthedomesticenterprisesinthesameindustryinordertoenhancetheoverallcompetitivenessofChina,Chinashouldencouragethedomesticenterprisestoformalliancesfor"pre-competitionresearchanddevelopment".Byformingsuchalliances,institutionsandplatformsforlong-termandstablejointdevelopmentcanbeestablishedandclosecooperationbetweentheenterprisesinthesameindustrycanbestrengthenedinthefie,Chinashouldformulatemorerelevantpolicies,inlightoftheeconomicandtechnologicalcharacteristicsoftheoilandgasindustryandtheuniquefeaturesoftheinternationalcompetition,,thestateshouldintroducecorporate-orientedfinancialandtaxpolicies,especiallythestimulationpolicies,intheupstreamareaofprospectinganddevelopmenttechnologies,andgiveprioritysupporttothenationaloilenterprisestoinnovatetechnologiesthatcanboostexploration,developmentandextractionrate,andinparticulartodeve,Chinashouldstrengthenthemanagementroductsandtechnologies(mainlyatthedownstreamoftheoilandgasindustry),Chinashouldnotonlyintroducepoliciesthatofferfinancialandtaxincentivestoenterprisesbutalsointroducemoreconsumer-orientedstimulationpoliciesinlightofthestrategicrequirementsofthecountrysenergypoliciessothatrationalconsumptionwillguidetheenterprisestoinnovatethetechnologiesforcleanandrenewableenergyproducts,enhancetheuseefficiencyofoilproductsandprovideotherindustrieswithevencleanerenergies.ByChenDaofu,,nterprisesChinasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshave,formanyyears,,thePeoplesBankofChinahadservedastheonlyfinancialorganinthesociety,,itwasthe,althoughbanksofvariouskindsandothernon-bankingfinancialinstitutionshaveincreasedtheirmarketsharesgradually,thefourmajorstate-,inthefinalanalysis,,thereformofthestate-ownedbankswillinevitablybecloselylinkedwiththereformofChinasfinancialsystemandwiththedispositionofitsfinancialresources,ratherthanasstate-ownedfinancialinstitutionsisbyitselfaimedatachievingsomemacroscopictarge,imperfectionofthemicro-reformofthestate-ownedfinancialinstitutionshasalsotriggeredoffmacroscopicissues,forexample,thereversedtransmissionofthepressureforeasingmonetaryconditionhasresultedininflation,,thestate-ownedfinancialenterpriseshadplayedafargreaterroleinthehistoryofChinaseconomicdevelopmentthanactingmerelyasfinancialenterprisesandhadeverplayedauniqueroleinpromotingChina,Chinasfinancialenterprisesareimbuedwithfiscalfunctionstoacertainextent,whichhasbeenevidentlyreflectedbythecausesoftheformati,therewerethreemainstagesfortheformationofChinasnon-performingloans:from1980stoearly1990s,thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansgrantedtooldtraditionalindustrialenterprisesandloansforblindrepeatconstructions,accountedforabout1/3;thenon-performingloansresultedfromtheloansreleasedduringtheeconomicoverheatingperiodinearly1990smadeup1/3orso;andthenon-performingloansresultedfromthebankruptcy,mergerandrestructuringofenterprisescarriedoutbythestateinmid-andlate1990sconstitutedapproximately1/,theChineseeconomyhadbeenaquantityexpansionpatternunderthedominanceofthegovernment,andthewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankswerestatespecializedbanks,,thoughsuchasituationchangedabit,,thewhollystate-fundedcommercialbankspaidcostforthetransformationofthewholesystem,suchasthemergerandbankruptcyofenterprises,therestructuringoftheenterprisesintextile,coal,defense,foreigntrade,supplyandmarketingindustries,~2000alone,sFinancialInstitutionsReformBeforethereformandopeningupwascarriedoutin1978,Chinapracticedan"all-in-one"sBankofChinaandtheruralcreditcooperativesunderitsleadershipweretheonlyfinancialinstitutions,andthemanpower,financialandmaterialresourcesofvariousbranchesofthePeoplesBankwereunderthec,andthepracticeof"unifieddepositsandunifiedloans"wascarriedout,namely,theabsorbeddepositswerehandedovertotheHeadOfficeforunifiedallocationandloa(theminimumfundquotasneeded)ofenterpriseswerefromfinancialappropriations,andpartofthecircul,includingfinancialfunds,rminedbythestateinaplannedway,andcurrencyservedonlyasanaccounti,~1993:Financialreforminthereformofeconomicincrement----constructionofabasicfinancialsystembasedoneconomicneedsSuchafinancialreformduringthisperiodwasmeanttoprovidenewresourcesforthereformwhiletallyingwiththenewstrategyforthereform.(1)WideningthebusinessscopeofthebanksOntheonehand,bankswerenotonlyabletograntacertainamountofcirculatingfundloans,butcouldpro,shortagesofthecirculatingfunds,appropriationsforChinasbudgeintheunitsownedbythewholepeopleaccountedforabout2/3before1979andonlyfor1/,besidesthestate-runenterprises,loanscouldalsogotoprivately-operatedenterprisesandtotheself-employedaswell.(2)Eancebusiness(before1984).In1979,AgriculturalBankofChinawasre-designatedasthespecializedbankinchargeofthefinancialbusinessinruralareas,BankofChinawasseparatedfromthePeoplesBankofChinaandbecameanindependentspecializedforeignexchangebank,andChinaConstructionBankwasreorga,IndustrialandCommercialBankofChinawasestablishedtoundertakeindustrialandcommercialcreditandurbansavingsbusinesspreviouslyhandledbythePeople,People,institutionalmanagementwaschangedtocorporatemanagement,thereformofcombiningresponsibilities,rightsandinterestswascarriedoutinanall-roundwayandthepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"inincomedistributionwasbrokendown,,thepracticeof"eatingatthebigpot"infunddistributionwascastaway,fundconstraintfrombankswasgraduallystrengthenedandtheinter-bankbusinesslimitswereruledout....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,sPresidentZhouXiaochuan:ReformofChinasBankingIndustryScalesNewHeights.

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